Low-leverage states in international mediation: a comparative case study of Norway and Qatar

Bary, Ida (2022). Low-leverage states in international mediation: a comparative case study of Norway and Qatar. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

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Although there has been considerable research on various aspects of inter-national mediation, few studies have specifically addressed the issue of low-leverage states and their potential as mediators. Low-leverage states do not fit neatly into the traditional categories of “pure” or “power” mediators be-cause of their unique status as states who often have an interest in the conflict and yet lack the same level of leverage possessed by powerful states to use in their mediation.
Through their engagement in the international arena, low-leverage-states adopt different approaches to international mediation. This thesis contributes to the existing knowledge and the understanding of the scholarly literature by presenting two different approaches for low-leverage states in international mediation: norm-driven mediation and interest-driven mediation. Those two approaches to mediation are represented by Qatar and Norway. While Nor-way represents norm-based mediation, Qatar represents interest-based mediation. To find out the reasons behind the different types of engagement by low-leverage states in international mediation, this thesis answered the following main research question: Why do low-leverage states engage differently in international mediation? In addition, the following sub-questions were asked: What are the motivations and the capabilities of interest-based low-leverage mediators? What are the motivations and the capabilities of norm-based low-leverage mediators? Those questions were answered through a qualitative comparative case study of Qatar and Norway. This thesis makes a significant contribution to our knowledge by drawing on more than 30 semi-structured interviews with elite representatives, including diplomats, political leaders and politicians from different countries such as Norway, Israel, Qatar, Sudan, South Sudan, Darfur, the Palestinian Authority and Hamas.

Type of Work: Thesis (Doctorates > Ph.D.)
Award Type: Doctorates > Ph.D.
Licence: All rights reserved
College/Faculty: Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Social Sciences
School or Department: School of Government and Society, Department of Political Science and International Studies
Funders: None/not applicable
Subjects: J Political Science > JZ International relations
URI: http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/id/eprint/12784


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