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# Development and application of time-temperature integrators to thermal food processing

Tucker, Gary (2008)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

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## Abstract

This thesis describes the research and development into a range of time-temperature integrators (TTIs) for the measurement of process values for food heat treatments. The TTIs are based on the first order thermal degradation of bacterial $$\alpha$$-amylases. Two new TTIs are described, one for mild pasteurisation treatments of a few minutes at 70°C and one for full sterilisation of >3 minutes at 121.1°C. Examples are given of how these TTIs are applied to a variety of industrial thermal processes. These include traditional methods such as canning, but also more complex systems such as tubular heat exchangers and batch vessels, together with novel systems such as ohmic heating. Some of the industrial experiments dealt with processes in which the thermal effects had not been previously quantified. For sterilisation, a highly innovative solution is required. A candidate TTI material is identified based on an amylase secreted by the hyperthermophilic microorganism Pyrococcus furiosus. This microorganism exists in extreme conditions where it metabolises in boiling volcanic pools; with elemental sulphur readily available, in water of high salinity, and in a reducing atmosphere. The amylase it secretes is naturally thermostable and withstands a full thermal sterilisation process.

Type of Work: Ph.D. thesis. Fryer, P. J. and Cox, Philip William Schools (1998 to 2008) > School of Engineering Chemical Engineering TP Chemical technology University of Birmingham Check for printed version of this thesis 144
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