Items where Subject is "R Medicine > RC Internal medicine"

Up a level
Export as [feed] Atom [feed] RSS 1.0 [feed] RSS 2.0
Group by: Author | Year of Award
Jump to: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | V | W | Y | Z
Number of items at this level: 310.


Adlard, Nichola Jayne (2016). Expression of chemokines CXCL4 and CXCL7 in the synovium at an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ahmed, Adeeba (2010). The role of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 and Hepatic Glucocorticoid Metabolism in the Metabolic Syndrome. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ahmed, Ibrar (2017). Studies on the pathophysiological mechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Akingbasote, James Adebola (2012). Utility of the HRN™ (hepatic cyp reductase null) mice for investigating mechanisms of liver toxicity of carboxylic-acid-containing drugs. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Al Ghaithi, Rashid Hafidh Rashid (2018). Laboratory investigation of platelet function in patients with mild bleeding disorders. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Al Shakarchi, Julien (2017). The use of infrared thermal imaging as a marker of tissue perfusion and predictor of arteriovenous fistula outcomes. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Alabaster, George Herbert (1919). Penetrating wounds of lung & pleura. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Alanazi, Asma (2016). Studies of recruitment and migration of mesenchymal stem cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Alassiri, Mohammed (2016). Characterising the PEPITEM pathway in patients with atherosclerosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Alomar, Hatun (2017). Assessment of the expression of 5-HT receptors in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Apta, Bonita Harriet Radha (2013). Is CD248 involved in the resolution of inflammation during development of lung sarcoidosis? and the role of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in the survival of lymphocytes. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Askwith, Trevor (2010). Taurine depletion and Schwann cell dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Atkin, Catherine Emma (2019). Diagnostic delay in plasma cell dyscrasias. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Attridge, Kesley Blair (2012). Role of Interleukin 21 in CD4 T cell regulation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Bailey, Margaret J. (2005). The clinical assessment and rehabilitation of hemineglect in elderly stroke patients. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Bain, Stephen Charles (1994). The genetics of type 1 diabetes: family and population studies. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Banushi, Blerida (2014). Molecular characterisation of a novel vipar interacting protein in health and disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Barnes, Amy (2011). Hepatitis C virus entry receptor dynamics and studies of platelet actin dynamics using lifeact-gfp: a potential role for actin nodules in filopodia formation. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Bartlett, David Christopher (2015). The role of adhesion molecule interactions in the engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes into host liver. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Basnayake, Kolitha Indika (2012). The biology of immunoglobulin free light chains in kidney disease: a study of Monoclonal and Polyclonal light chains. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Bedford, Matthew Robert (2015). A role for deferasirox as an anti-neoplastic and chemosensitising agent in gastrointestinal cancer. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Bellary, Srikanth (2010). Enhanced care to people of South Asian Ethnicity-the United Kingdom Asian Diabetes Study (UKADS). University of Birmingham. M.D.

Bennett, Philip Christopher (2013). Peripheral arterial disease amongst minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Bennett, Rachael Hannah (2017). Molecular interactions of AMIGO family members in the Nogo receptor complex. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Bentall, Andrew John (2015). Antibodies in kidney transplantation. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Bhogal, Ricky Harminder (2013). The role of oxidative stress and CD154-mediated reactive oxygen species in regulating hepatocyte cell death during hypoxia and hypoxia-reoxygenation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Blair-Reid, Sarah Alexandra (2010). An investigation of the Ciliary Protein PKHD1 in Cyst development in liver disease: clues to the pathogenesis of Biliary Atresia. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Bowe, Denise Catherine (2016). The effect of cleaning and tooth whitening agents on the mechanical properties of two thermoplastic orthodontic retainer materials. University of Birmingham. M.Sc.

Box, Clare Louise (2015). Interactions between platelets and platelet derived microvesicles in inflamation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Branch, Rebecca Louise (2011). Peripheral neuropathy in hypertension. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

Brown, James (2015). Articulated statistical shape models for the analysis of bone destruction in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Brown, Richard (2018). Measures of vascular dysfunction, monocyte subsets and circulating microparticles in patients with diffuse coronary artery disease. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Burns, David Meriton (2015). Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of post-transpant lymphoproliferative disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Butt, Mehmood Sadiq (2012). Micro- and macro-vascular function in obstructive sleep apnoea. University of Birmingham. M.D.


Cader, Fathima Zumla (2011). An investigation of the aberrant expression and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases in hodgkin’s lymphoma. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Chang, Wei-Chih (2010). High frequency activity preceding epileptic seizures. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Chanouzas, Dimitrios (2017). Cytomegalovirus modulation of the immune system in ANCA associated vasculitis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Chortis, Vasileios (2017). Developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in adrenocortical carcinoma. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Choudhury, Juhela (2010). The role of Thyroid hormone Transporters Monocarboxylate Transporter 10 (MCT10) and Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 (MCT8) in extravillous trophoblasts. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

Christmas, Pauline Mary (2016). A randomised controlled trial and systematic review comparing two methods of constraint induced movement therapy to improve upper limb function in pre-school children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Chu, Justin Jamie (2016). Approaches to improving embryo implantation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Clancy, Michael (2017). Application and development of high-density functional near infrared spectroscopy for traumatic brain injury. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Clark, Juliette A. (2012). Subcellular distribution of lipid metabolising enzymes in human skeletal muscle. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Clay, Elizabeth (2015). The effects of environmental oxygen on CD4+ T lymphocyte activation and responses. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Cochran, Malcolm (1975). Acidosis and bone disease in chronic renal failure. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Cook, Sarah Louise (2011). The role of CCRL2 in the regulation of germinal centre B-cell migration and a new regulatory step in T-cell migration into tissue during inflammation; separating the wanted from the unwanted. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Corbett, Christopher (2015). Novel markers of liver fibrosis. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Crooks, Neil Harvey (2019). An open-label study into the efficacy and dosing of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 for the prevention of gram-negative gastric colonisation in ventilated intensive care patients. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Crowe, Henry Neville (1913). A contribution to the study of arterio-sclerosis. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Cunliffe, Helen Elizabeth (2015). Transcriptional regulation of the anti-inflammatory protein tristetraprolin (TTP). University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Dancer, Rachel Catherine Anne (2017). Investigation into a potential role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Das, Satyajit (2010). Mechanism of lipid disorder in HIV infection: apolipoprotein-B kinetics, fat distribution, insulin resistance and adipocytokines in patients taking protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Davenport, Clare Frances (2012). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of test accuracy: developing methods that meet practitioners’ needs. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Davidsen, Peter Kåre (2016). Understanding skeletal muscle adaptation in health and chronic disease: a multi-omics based systems biology perspective. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Davies, Amy (2014). Imaging of platelet actin nodule with high spatial and temporal resolution. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Davies, David (2017). Cerebral near infra-red spectroscopy in traumatic brain injury as a potential independent monitoring modality and alternative to invasive tissue oxygen tension sensors. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Davies, Huw Owain Bleddyn (2019). The impact of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Clinical Guideline 168 on the management of superficial venous disease. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Davies, Robert (2012). The short term effects of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) on coagulation and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with infra-renal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Davies, Scott Philip (2014). Characterisation of novel PRMT1 interacting proteins AND Hepatocyte-Lymphocyte cell-in-cell structures: Implications for the host cell. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Dawood, Ban Behnam (2010). Study of patients with suspected platelet-based bleeding disorders: a search for patients with a defect in the P2Y12 ADP receptor. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

De Pablo, Paola (2013). The epidemiology of musculoskeletal inflammation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Dempsey, Claire (2019). An investigation into the phenotype, function and immunomodulatory properties of in vitro expanded iNKT cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Diapouli, Frantzeska-Maria (2011). Investigating the reverse transmigration of neutrophils in human and murine in vitro models of inflammation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Dinsdale, Robert Johnathon (2017). Production and impaired regulation of neutrophil extracellular traps following severe thermal injury, implications for sepsis and multiple organ failure. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Disney, Benjamin Robert (2017). Assessment of platelet activation and prothrombotic risk following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and bleeding in the context of acute coronary syndromes. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Dominguez Medina, Carmen Coral (2018). Investigation of how antibody to the outer membrane porin d from salmonella typhimurium binds and protects against infection. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Drinkall, Nicholas (2012). Hox gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and Neurogenic differentiation of Mesenchymal stem cells. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Dutra Braz, Igor (2016). Influence of age, exercise and atrial fibrillation on the cerebrovascular function. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Eddowes, Peter John (2018). The role of MRI in stratifying and evaluating chronic liver disease. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Edwards, Claire Frances (2017). Exploring sensory modulation across rare genetic syndromes and exploring the behavioural phenotype of Pallister-Killian Syndrome. University of Birmingham. Clin.Psy.D.

Edwards, Nicola Catherine (2011). The effect of spironolactone on cardiovascular disease in early stage chronic kidney disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ejiofor, Stanley Ikenna (2018). The role of ambulatory oxygen to improve skeletal muscle gene expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in patients with exercise induced hypoxaemia. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Ellis, Jonathan (2016). Examining a role for histone deacetylase inhibitors as immunosuppressants in organ transplantation. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Ellison, Stuart (2010). CD148: a positive regulator of GPVI and \(\alpha\)II\(\beta\)3 proximal signalling in platelets. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Evryviadou, Aigli (2019). Unravelling the interactions between leukocytes and platelet-derived extracellular vesicles in atherosclerosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Fairclough, Marianne Elizabeth (2010). Diversity among monocyte derived stromal cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Farruggia-Bochnak, Antonio Giuseppe (2017). Beyond four dyslexia paradigms: an alternative perspective on dyslexia and emancipatory intervention on self-concept. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Fenton, Anthony (2020). Novel prognostic factors in chronic kidney disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Fenwick, Angela Mary (2015). Which arts therapy for which client and why? University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Fernández del Río, Raquel (2017). Identification of volatile organic compounds in breath associated with liver disease and their potential applications for medical use. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Field, Melanie (2015). The role and clinical utility of acute kidney injury biomarkers in the setting of renal transplantation. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Fitzpatrick, Martin (2011). Tracking viral entry into target cells by virological and immunological methods. Do differentiated macrophages display profoundly different metabolic profiles, reflecting their different functions? University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Fitzpatrick, Martin Antony (2016). Do differentiated macrophages display distinct metabolic profiles reflecting their different functions? University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Foon, Richard (2014). The impact of anaesthesia on the urinary bladder following delivery and retropubic incontinence surgery. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

Fütterer, Jane Wong (2017). Characterisation of a novel protein, ANKRD18A, implicated in a severe form of thrombocytopenia. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Galsinh, Sukhdeep Kaur (2015). The role of stromal cells in Hepatitis C virus infection. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Gardner, David Harry (2016). T cell costimulatory pathways – the role of vitamin D3. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Garg, Abhilok (2013). In vitro processing of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells to enhance delivery in liver disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Gayed, Mary (2015). The long term outcomes of children born to mothers with Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE). University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Geer, Mitchell Jon (2018). Regulation of platelet signalling by the ITIM-containing receptor G6b-B. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Goodwin, Joanna Jane (2018). Investigating the role of nitrite in cardiovascular disease. University of Birmingham. M.Sc.

Gordon, Tessa (2016). The peripheral nervous system: injury and disease. University of Birmingham. D.Sc.

Gressani, Rosita (2017). Rehabilitation of problem-solving planning and reasoning after traumatic brain injury and assessment of capacity to take part in research in people with acquired brain injury. University of Birmingham. Clin.Psy.D.

Griffin, Aliesha (2011). Characterisation of PAPSS2 genetic variants in vitro / Investigating the role of vitamin D in inflammation related muscle loss. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Gunarathne, Herath Mudiyanselage Ashan Indika (2012). Assessment of arterial structure and function in South Asian ischaemic stroke survivors. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Guy, Alison Jane (2015). Machine perfusion in kidney transplantation: clinical application & metabolomic analysis. University of Birmingham. M.D.


Haldar, Debashis (2019). Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for liver fibrosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hameed, Mohammed A (2020). Treatment-resistant hypertension: A focus on prevalence of nonadherence, associated factors and renal sympathetic denervation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hamid, Mash (2017). The relationship amongst dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese adults. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hammer, Fabian (2011). Corticosteroid hormone action in the cardiovascular system. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Haroon, Shamil Macbool Mohamed (2015). Case finding for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care: finding the optimal approach. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hart, Peter (2015). Comparison of the immune response to typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal salmonella disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah Zeb (2015). A study of classical and novel markers of disease in multiple sclerosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hawthorne, Gemma Mary (2017). The pharmacogenetic and immunomodulatory response to Vitamin D in tuberculosis. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Hayes, Rosie May (2016). Investigating the mechanisms of nitrite-mediated cardioprotection. University of Birmingham. M.Sc.

Heath, Jennifer Noelle (2010). Epigenetic analysis of promiscuous gene expression in central tolerance. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hedegaard, Ditte Christiane Emma Lindemann (2014). Hepatitis C virus compartmentalisation: unravelling the genetic complexity. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hennessey, James Todd (2017). An examination of human anatomy in the drama of the early modern period. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Holmes, Andrew Philip Stephen (2013). Stimulus response coupling in the carotid body: a role for metabolic signalling. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Holyer, Ian (2011). The role of platelets and their associated recruitment mechanisms, in intestinal ischaemia reperfusion injury. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Hosseini Araghi, Marzieh (2014). The association between sleep and obesity and its impact on health and wellbeing. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Houlihan, Diarmaid Dominic (2015). Growth factors direct mesenchymal stem cell fate and therapeutic potential. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Howell, Neil John (2011). Metabolic support in left ventricular hypertrophy. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Irwin, Ryan (2017). Understanding variation in the clinical quality of primary care: a typology of general practice organisations. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ivanov, Chavdar (2020). Apo-dystrophin: localization and expression of Dp116, Dp70, and Dp40 during embryogenesis. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.


Jain, Poorva (2015). Can routinely collected primary care data determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and predict clinical events in patients with stages 3 of the disease? University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Jaipersad, Anthony S. (2014). A study of the role of monocyte functional subpopulations in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Jawad-Ul-Qamar, Muhammad (2020). Holter electrocardiographic and clinical predictors of incident paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Jeffery, Louisa Elizabeth (2012). Studies on the differentiation of inflammatory and regulatory T-cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Jochems, Sylvia Hubertina Johanna (2020). Diet and bladder cancer risk and recurrence. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Johnson, Ben (2013). Utilising the zebrafish model organism to study the effect of FLCN in early embryonic development and Genotyping and platelet phenotyping of cases of rare inherited platelet based bleeding disorders. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Junejo, Rehan Talib (2017). Contribution of oxygen-dependent mechanisms to vascular responses of exercise in young and older men: the role of prostaglandins and adenosine. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Juárez Pérez, María Jesús (2015). Functional and transcriptional characterisation of synovial fibroblasts in early inflammatory arthritis and established rheumatoid arthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Kapoor, Sabrina Reenu (2014). Metabolomics of inflammatory arthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Karamat, Muhammad Ali (2014). Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome: the role of easily reproducible non-invasive screening methods. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Karthikeyan, Vellore J (2012). Vascular biology of pregnancy: a study of endothelial markers in hypertension in pregnancy. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Kaur, Sukhbir (2011). Characterisation of the expression profile and endothelial function of Rho GTPase RhoJ. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Kennedy, Amy (2017). Examining the barriers and benefits to exercise in adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Khan, Nazish (2017). The clinical efficacy of oral P2Y12 inhibitor antiplatelet therapies during an acute myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. University of Birmingham. Other

King, Andrew Laurence (2014). Optimising stem cell therapy for liver disease through modulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Kiprianos, Allan Panagiotis (2011). The effects of acid sphingomyelinase on endothelial cell function and its role in chronic inflammatory disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Kocurek, Klaudia Izabela (2019). Development of liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry for protein analysis in microbial colonies. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Kottoor, Sherine Hermangild (2011). Regulatory T cells in human uveitis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Krishnamoorthy, Suresh (2015). Arterial stiffness, macro-vascular, micro-vascular endothelial function and cardiac remodelling in arterial fibrillation. University of Birmingham. M.D.


Lai, Pei Fong (2011). SPCA and regucalcin: expression, activity and regulation in Ca2+ homeostasis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lal, Neeraj (2017). Exploring immunogenomic influences on the microenvironment of colorectal cancer. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lal, Niraja Padmalata (2016). Placental growth factor (PlGF) regulation and expression in endothelial cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Langan, Stacey Anne (2011). Does crosslinking of podoplanin by CLEC-2 inhibit migration of lymphatic endothelial cells? & Regulation of the platelet collagen receptor GPVI and its sheddase ADAM10 by tetraspanin membrane microdomains. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Langan, Stacey Anne (2015). Signalling interactions between platelets and lymphatic endothelial cells, linked to lymphangiogenesis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lau, Yee Cheng (2017). The prothrombotic state in atrial fibrillation – observations on fibrin clot structure and the relationship to renal dysfunction. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Lewthwaite, Alistair John (2009). A clinical and molecular genetic study into familial and sporadic Parkinson’s Disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lombard, Stephanie Eileen (2017). Role of platelet CLEC‐2 and podoplanin in inflammation and vascular integrity. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lowe, Gillian Clare (2016). Phenotyping and genotyping of platelet defects in patient populations enriched in bleeding. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lowe, Kate (2011). Project 1: Studies on the role of CLEC-2 and Syk in lymphatic development and response to radiation & Project 2: A role for atrial natiuretic peptide in platelet inhibition and evidence for compartmentation of cGMP signalling. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Lucas, Beth (2015). Expression and function of the atypical chemokine receptor CCRL1 in the thymus. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Lupino, Lauren (2017). Investigating the contribution of aberrant sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling to the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


MacDonald, Anita (1999). The dietary management of phenylketonuria. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Mackley, Emma Christine (2016). Investigating the role of innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid tissue. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Maclachlan, Annabel Elizabeth Nicol (2020). Identification and functional investigation of genes involved in inherited bleeding disorders. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Maher, Abdul R (2013). The role of inorganic nitrite in the transport of nitric oxide in health and heart failure. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Mahida, Rahul Yashwantsinh ORCID: 0000-0003-1100-8684 (2020). Can combined cellular and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene therapy attenuate inflammation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome? University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Marriott, Clare Louisa (2016). Investigating the in vivo requirements for the generation and survival of CD4⁺ memory T cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Martins, Amadeu Manuel Quelhas (2011). The impact of cardiac feedback on human cognition. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

May, Joanna Emily (2016). A pilot study to compare clinical and radiographic success of a non-root instrumentation non-vital pulpotomy and a traditional pulpectomy. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

McCarthy, Nicholas Ian (2017). Regulation of medullary homeostasis by thymic epithelial cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

McClean, Andrew (2016). Why are patients with anca-associated vasculitis fatigued? University of Birmingham. M.D.

McCooty, Shanteela Asmahra (2017). The predictive value of ePAQ in the urodynamic diagnoses in women. University of Birmingham. M.Sc.

McIntosh, Alistair James (2018). The role of adipose tissue immune cells in immune responses. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

McKay Bounford, Kirsten Elizabeth (2016). Investigations into the genetic causes of liver disease using molecular genetic technologies. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

McLeod, Judith Dawn (2016). An investigation of changes in tissue oxygenation in military casualties during aeromedical evacuation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

McNelis, Joanne (2009). Dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase activity and expression in human disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

McNulty, Clare (2016). Ageing, inflammation and cardiovascular function. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Menon, Shyam Sundar (2011). The influence of gender on the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux, Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Milton, Sarah Elizabeth (2012). an investigation into the role of neurotransmitter receptors in the function of human immune cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Misstear, Karen (2010). Elucidating the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the KSHV protein vOX2. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Mitchell, Wayne William Alfred (2011). Contribution of troponin-I to the regulation of cardiac muscle. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Mobley, Alastair (2015). Hypoglycaemia-induced changes in the patterns of breathing in rodents. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Montague, Samantha J. (2017). Platelet activation in trauma and other inflammatory conditions. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Moody, William Edward (2015). Effects of a reduction in renal function on cardiovascular structure and function: a prospective study of living kidney donors. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Mooney, Ciarán James (2017). Expression of growth factor receptors by haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Morgan, Stuart Andrew (2010). The impact of glucocorticoids upon the insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Morton, Laura T. (2011). Project 1: Anatomical localisation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tissues & Project 2: Phenotypic and functional analysis of EBV-specific CD4+ T cells in blood and tonsils. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Moxon, Thomas (2017). Mathematical modelling of gastric emptying and nutrient absorption in the human digestive system. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Munir, Hafsa (2016). Mesenchymal stem cells as endogenous regulators of leukocyte recruitment; the effects of differentiation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Munir, Hafsa (2012). Project 1: The biophysical effects of low intensity ultrasound on the morphology, growth and differentiation potential of bone marrow-derived Mesenchymal stem cells and Project 2: The dynamic changes in histone modifications on the Hoxb genes that accompany embryonic stem cell differentiation. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Munir, Mamoona (2015). The regulation of inflammatory liver responses by the TNF ligand and receptor system-TWEAK and Fn14, via human intra-hepatic endothelial cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Murray, Anna Marie (2014). Reperfusion as a marker of success of distal revascularisation. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Muñoz García, Amadeo (2020). Immunometabolic effects of vitamin D unravelled by an integrative systems biology analysis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Nabiei, Roozbeh (2017). Action recognition using instrumented objects for stroke rehabilitation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Nanus, Dominika Ewa (2016). Local glucocorticoids generation in the inflamed joint: regulation and functional consequences. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Narshi, Aruna (2011). The role of tropomyosin during heart development (Part I) and neuroanatomical and cardiorespiratory changes associated with metamorphosis (Part II) in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Nasiri, Maryam (2016). Regulation of the metabolic phenotype of human hepatocytes by glucocorticoids and androgens. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Nath, Jay (2017). The clinical benefits and metabolic mechanisms of ex vivo machine perfusion of kidneys prior to transplantation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Needham, Michelle (2007). Exacerbations, health status and sibling pair comparisons in severe Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Ng, Khai Ping (2016). Reducing cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: a focus on mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist and arterial stiffness in primary care. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ng Kam Chuen, Marie Jennyfer (2012). Using repeated measures of blood biomarkers and physical biomeasures to define changes in volume status in patients with decompensated heart failure, normal volunteers and patients with stable left ventricular systolic dysfunction. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Nicolson, Phillip Lindsay Ross ORCID: 0000-0002-4843-2975 (2019). The effect of Btk inhibition on platelet activation by GPVI and CLEC-2. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Nirantharakumar, Krishnarajah (2013). Clinical decision support systems in the care of hospitalised patients with diabetes. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Novitzky Basso, Igor Nicolas (2015). The functional significance of the Duffy negative polymorphism. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


O'Donnell, Mark John (1993). The kidney in diabetes mellitus : urinary transfer in excretion, hypertension, the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system, and the role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in therapy. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Ormerod, Julian Oliver Macbeth (2011). Towards nitrite as a therapy in cardiovascular disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Osailan, Ahmad (2017). Investigation of factors associated with autonomic nervous system function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Owen, Andrew Philip (2015). The effects of mesenchymal stem cells on a model of autoimmune liver disease. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Owen, Caroline Ann (1993). Monocyte adherence to fibronectin: role of CD11/CD18 integrins and relationship to other monocyte functions. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

O’Reilly, Michael (2015). Unravelling the link between insulin resistance and androgen excess. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Palmer, Richard Frederick (1963). Studies on the effects of different preparations of human gonadotrophins on the excretion of steroids by women. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Parker, Richard (2015). Chemokine receptors as therapeutic targets in liver disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Parry, Helen Marie (2016). An investigation into the impact of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Patel, Chirag (2013). Molecular genetic analysis of familial congenital heart disease. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Patel, Jaimin Mukesh (2015). Exaggerated neutrophil immunosenescence in sepsis and its potential modification with simvastatin. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Patel, Upen Sachin (2016). Kilohertz ultrasound as a potential therapy for dental repair. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Payne, Holly (2018). Novel insights into the mechanisms of venous thrombosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Pendekanti, Venkata (2017). Regulation of motility and Ca2+ signalling in human sperm. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Perera, Thamara Prabhath Ranasinghe (2015). The use of microdialysis and metabolomics to study the biomarker differences between donation after circulatory death (DCD) and donation after brain death (DBD) liver grafts in orthotopic liver transplantation. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Phan, Thanh Trung (2010). The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Philp, Ashleigh M. (2017). The role of adipose secreted cytokines in driving the pathological changes in osteoarthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Pinkney, Thomas David (2017). Wound-edge protection devices to reduce surgical site infection. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Pitkeathly, William Thomas Eric (2016). Four dimensional analysis of vesicle dynamics during directed cell migration. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Poole, Vikki Louise (2017). A new therapeutic target to facilitate radioiodine treatment of breast cancer. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Powell, Richard Morgan (2018). Novel T cell function and specificity at the human maternal-fetal interface. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Prabu, Athiveeraramapandian (2013). Prevalence and risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with lupus. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Pratt, Kenny Matthew (2016). Novel properties of hnRNP-UL1: its possible role in the pathogenesis of ALS. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Prince, Samantha (2013). Mutation analysis of wolfram syndrome patients and functional study of the Wolframin protein. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil ORCID: 0000-0003-2338-8397 (2020). Exploring interactions between host and gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease: An appraisal through faecal microbiota transplantation and systems biology. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Qureshi, Khalid (2012). Immune modulation with amniotic epithelial cells in pancreatic islet transplantation. University of Birmingham. M.D.


Rachaneni, Suneetha (2016). Accuracy of bladder ultrasound in the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity (BUS study). University of Birmingham. M.D.

Rae, Peter Colin (2011). The potential role of endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic angiogenesis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Rahman, Ishtiaq Ali (2010). Application of remote ischaemic preconditioning to human coronary artery bypass surgery. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Ramagiri, Pradeep (2017). Analysis of the genome and viral transcriptome of Epstein-Barr virus associated paediatric B cell lymphomas. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Reddington, Faye (2008). Lipid antigens and immunoregulatory iNKT cells in the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes and related autoimmune diseases. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Redgrave, Liam Stephen (2017). The role of supercoiling in altering chromosome structure, gene expression and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Reyat, Jasmeet Singh (2016). Regulation of lymphocyte transmigration by ADAM10 and TspanC8 tetraspanins. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Richardson, Matthew (2010). Investigation of over-fitting and optimism in prognostic models. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Richmond, Grace Emma (2016). The role of the AdeRS two component system and the AdeABC RND Efflux pump in antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Richmond, Grace Emma (2013). Adaptation and development of a new method for measuring antibiotic and dye accumulation in Acinetobacter baumannii. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

Riddell, Natalie E. (2010). CD8+ lymphocyte and progenitor cell mobilization during acute psychological stress and betaadrenergic stimulation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ridley, Michael Luke (2017). Negative feedback of inflammation of macrophages: transcriptional cross-talk of the LPS and IL-10 signalling pathways. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Roberts, Natalie Amy (2011). Lymphostromal interactions in the development and function of thymic epithelial cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Robinson, Joseph (2016). The role of platelets in lymphocyte recruitment during liver inflamation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Rollings, David T. (2017). EEG-fMRI in epilepsy and sleep. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Roschka, Sybille (2019). Do stroke survivors with upper extremity spasticity benefit from botulinum toxin? An observational study exploring daily activities. University of Birmingham. M.Sc.

Rosewilliam, Sheeba Bharathi (2016). The influence of patient-centredness during goal-setting in stroke rehabilitation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Roussakis, Yiannis G. (2016). Strategies for adaptive radiotherapy: towards clinically efficient workflows. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Rowe, Ian Alston Cooper (2013). The role of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in hepatitis C virus infection. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Sangha, Jason (2011). Biliverdin reductase in cardiovascular inflammation. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

Sarween, Nadia ORCID: 0000-0001-8707-8908 (2020). Biochemical and clinical factors which are associated with or predictive of pre-eclampsia in healthy women and those with chronic kidney disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Satherley, Rose-Marie (2017). Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in coeliac disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Scarpantonio, Luca (2011). Studies of DNA binding of lanthanide platinum complexes. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Schager, Anna Elisabeth (2017). Investigation of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens as a vaccine against invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Sejic, Nenad (2014). Epstein-Barr virus and cellular DNA damage response. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Senanayake, Eshan Lankapura (2015). Left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial protection with perhexiline during cardiac surgery. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Serban, Stefan Teodor (2017). Outcomes of Periodontal Treatment in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (OPERA): quantitative and qualitative results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Shantsila, Eduard (2012). Ethnic differences in endothelial function and monocyte subsets in heart failure. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Sheppard, James Peter (2010). The effects of hypocapnia on cardiac electrical activity and heart function and its relevance to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Shergill, Narinder Kaur (2010). Cancer treatment-related distress: evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions. University of Birmingham. Clin.Psy.D.

Sherlock, Mark (2011). The regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by ageing and glucocorticoids in key tissues. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Shetty, Shishir (2011). The role of CLEVER-1 in lymphocyte recruitment to the human liver. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Smeuninx, Benoit (2017). Mechanisms of and countermeasures to age-related muscle anabolic resistance and sarcopenia. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Smith, Christopher William (2014). The impact of high fat diet and chronic intermittent hypoxia on glucose control and cardiorespiratory function. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Smith, Helen Elizabeth (2013). The interrelationship of strain diversity, virulence and patient ethnicity for tuberculosis in the Midlands, UK. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Smith, Holly (2012). Investigation of VPS33B deficiency in mouse and man. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Smith, Joel Anthony (2015). Molecular genetic investigation of medullary thyroid cancer. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Smith, Michael James (2017). Utilising mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue and dental pulp for epithelial tissue engineering. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Smith, Stuart William (2012). The role of CD248+ stromal cells in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos (2017). Development of a biorelevant dynamic model of human proximal colon: a tool for designing colon – specific drug delivery systems. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Stanbury, Alexandra (2015). Predictors and outcomes of eating disorders. University of Birmingham. Clin.Psy.D.

Stechman, Michael James (2010). Genetic mouse models of nephrolithiasis. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Stephenson, Barney (2020). Development and evaluation of human ex vivo normothermic machine liver perfusion for viability testing and investigation of the role of TWEAK/Fn14 in ischaemia reperfusion injury. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Stones, Leanne (2011). Beta-lactam resistance in Campylobacter. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Stow, Ruth Elizabeth (2015). A cluster randomised feasibility trial evaluating six-month nutritional interventions in the treatment of malnutrition in care homedwelling adults. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Stradling, Clare ORCID: 0000-0002-1869-6451 (2019). 'Best Foods For your heart': a randomised controlled pilot study to assess the feasibility of a Mediterranean Portfolio dietary intervention for cardiovascular risk reduction in HIV dyslipidaemia. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Stringer, Stephanie Jane (2013). Establishing a high risk CKD cohort: cross-sectional analysis and early outcomes. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Sutaria, Rupesh (2017). The role of toll-like receptor ligands and fatty acids in the recruitment of monocytes across liver sinusoids. University of Birmingham. M.D.


Tan, Yu Ting (2013). Understanding diastolic heart failure. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Tay, Kok Hoon (2019). Prediction of bleeding risks in patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation. University of Birmingham. M.Sc.

Taylor, Clare Joanne (2016). The clinical pathway of patients with heart failure in primary care. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Thompson, Adam (2019). Understanding axon regeneration and retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in optic nerve injury. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Thompson, Emma Louise (2013). Adrenaline increases ventilation via a β-receptor and carotid body-mediated mechanism: a role in the hyperventilation of hypoglycaemia? University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Thompson, Emma Louise (2018). An investigation into the cerebral autoregulatory upper limit: Normal control mechanisms and changes associated with ageing. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Thompson, Rebecca Jane (2019). An investigation into the dimerisation of the sodium-iodide symporter. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Tickle, Joseph (2018). The role of vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1 during inflammatory liver disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Tiganescu, Ana (2012). Glucocorticoid metabolism and function in ageing skin. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Tomlinson, Neil David (2010). Regulation of C-type lectin-like receptors dectin-1 and CLEC-2 by tetraspanins. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Torlinska, Barbara (2017). Diagnosis, treatment and long-term consequences of hyperthyroidism: use of existing data to generate new knowledge. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Trivedi, Palak Jitendrakumar (2016). An exploration of Vascular Adhesion Protein (VAP)-1 expression in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC). University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Venkateswaran, R.V. (2010). The role of early management and hormone replacement therapy in potential heart and lung donors. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Vogt, Julie (2017). Clinical and molecular genetics of the multiple pterygium syndromes. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Vrzalikova, Katerina (2011). An investigation of the regulation of BLIMP1 by the epstein-barr virus in B cells. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Vu, Van Tuan (2016). Physical properties of particles and their implications for the calculation of the human regional lung dose. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Vyas, Nina (2017). Imaging dental ultrasonic cavitation and its effects. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

van Gemeren, Lindsey (2016). Imaging agents for mutlimodal in vivo immune cell tracking. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Wake, Naomi Catherine (2013). Identification and functional analysis of a novel renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility gene from an RCC associated constitutional chromosomal translocation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wallice, Rachel (2013). Effect of graded exercise on sympathetic vasoconstriction in normoxic and chronically hypoxic rats: a role for NO? University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Walsh, Diana (2011). Project 1: The role of acetylation in the non-homologous end joining pathway & Project 2: The identification of human disease genes through the use of exome sequencing. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Walsh, Diana Maria (2016). Exome sequencing and human disease: the molecular characterisation of genetic disorders. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Walton, Georgia May (2018). Neutrophil migration and phagocytosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wang, Su (2010). Regulatory mechanisms of epithelial sodium channel. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Ward, Carl Ross James (2011). Investigating the recruitment of MSC from whole blood flow & Generation and characterisation of mIPS. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Ward, Helen Marie (2015). Discordant lung function in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. University of Birmingham. M.D.

Ward, Lewis Stuart Corey (2018). Interactions of mesenchymal stromal cells with their microenvironment. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Watson, Timothy J. (2011). Circulating progenitor cells in atrial fibrillation: Relationship to endothelial dysfunction, thrombogenesis and inflammation. University of Birmingham. M.D.

White, Rebecca Lucy (2014). The recruitment mechanisms and beneficial roles of haematopoietic stem cells in murine acute kidney injury. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wiersma, Maaike (2015). Epigenetic regulation at MLL1 target genes. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wiersma, Maaike (2011). Part 1: Role of the histone kinase MSK1 on MLL gene regulation & Part 2: the molecular basis of inhibitory siganlling during neuronal regeneration. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Wilhelm, Annika (2015). The expression and function of TWEAK and FN14 in liver fibrosis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wilhelm, Annika (2011). The role of mTOR signalling in RGC axon regeneration. University of Birmingham. M.Res.

Williams, Lynne Kirsty (2010). Mechanisms by which cardiac resynchronisation therapy improves cardiac performance in heart failure. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wilson, Daisy (2018). Frailty, sarcopenia and immunesenescence: shared mechanisms and clinical insights. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Winter, Andrew John (1997). Hearing loss in experimental bacterial meningitis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Worthington, Lara Angharad (2016). Investigation of compressed-sensing for acceleration of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wu, Xue (2016). Atlas based image reconstruction for diffuse optical imaging of the human brain. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Wynn-Jones, Gareth David (2013). Development of a Portland cement based system for vertebroplasty. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Yee, Chee Seng (2008). Development and validation of the BILAG-2004 Index for the assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Yemm, Adrian Ian (2014). Enhancing haematopoeitic stem cell recruitment to injured murine colon. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Yeo, Lorraine (2012). Characterisation of cytokine expression in early synovitis and established rheumatoid arthritis. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Yu, Ting Yue (2016). Optical imaging of cardiac atrial activation and repolarisation in genetically altered models. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.


Zakeri, Zohreh (2017). Optimised use of independent component analysis for EEG signal processing. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Zeitlin, Abigail (2010). The role of the HLA region in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

Zielinska, Agnieszka (2015). Investigations into the integrated metabolism of glucocorticoids and glucose in skeletal muscle. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

Zulkifly, Hanis Hanum Binti (2019). Anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

This list was generated on Fri Jul 1 21:18:51 2022 BST.