Development of a Saudi food frequency questionnaire to evaluate the risk of CVD and T2DM in Saudi and British nutritionists and investigating its reliability and effectiveness

Faleh, Kholoud Mohammed (2019). Development of a Saudi food frequency questionnaire to evaluate the risk of CVD and T2DM in Saudi and British nutritionists and investigating its reliability and effectiveness. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

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Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic respiratory disease are a leading cause of death. These diseases result in the death of around 2.8 million people each year, worldwide (WHO, 2012a).
Western dietary habits and food supplies have resulted in the increased consumption of foods which are unhealthy. The consumption of unhealthy foods which are high in salt, saturated fats, low in fibres and vitamins have a major impact on the health of a person, which then increases the risk of various NCDs diseases such as CVD and T2DM. In terms of the Saudi Arabian population, this trend has caused an increase in the number of Saudi people who are now overweight and obese. Also, not enough dietary surveys have been carried out in KSA and thus the data available is not sufficient to explore the eating habits of the Saudi population. This research aims to develop and validate a culture-specific FFQ for dietary habits of the Saudi people to examine the risk factors associated with T2DM and CVD. Nutritionists were targeted as the sample group because they might have better eating habits than the public (Washi, 2000). In addition, general public members were also targeted to better understand the eating habits of a majority of Saudi people. Participants from both groups in the UK were also solicited. The study aimed to establish a baseline of self-reported behaviour for the sample group in KSA which can be followed in the future. Data was also collected on other related issues such as BMI and physical activity levels.
The study achieved an estimated 47.7% response rate with the use of social media to acquire data. The study established a valid, reliable FFQ for the Saudi population, which allows for collecting sufficient data on the risk factors related to CVD and T2DM. The FFQ proved as a good tool in establishing a baseline for Saudi nutritionists and public for future cohort measurements.
Comparing the results of the FFQs for screening the risk factors of CVD and T2DM in Saudi population showed an interesting trend. The analysis showed that there is a greater ratio of population who are smokers, overweight, obese and inactive in Saudi Arabia as compared to the British living in the UK. Hence, the implementation of important policies and intervention programmes is highly recommended in KSA. Awareness schemes to increase the community’s knowledge about CVD and T2DM risk factors is necessary to encourage nutritionists and specifically young adults in KSA to adopt healthy balanced diets while promoting physical activity and avoiding harmful activities.

Type of Work: Thesis (Doctorates > Ph.D.)
Award Type: Doctorates > Ph.D.
Licence: All rights reserved
College/Faculty: Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
School or Department: School of Chemical Engineering
Funders: Other
Other Funders: Saudi Ministry of Higher Education
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QM Human anatomy
Q Science > QP Physiology


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