Small-scale cocoa farmers participation in certification: an examination of enabling conditions in Indonesia

Wau, Duman (2016). Small-scale cocoa farmers participation in certification: an examination of enabling conditions in Indonesia. University of Birmingham. M.Phil.

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The thesis investigates why certification has not taken off in the Indonesian cocoa sector, seeking to identify factors that limit engagement with certification among small-scale farmers. The research is qualitative in nature, taking a case study approach by mapping and comparing three different value chains within the cocoa sector in the country. An analytical framework is developed from a review of literature and identifies four main types of enabling conditions for farmers to engage with certification: farmers being organised; having strong links to a new market; availability of external support; and, perceived potential benefits from participation. Data was collected from 43 interviews and 2 focus group discussions with internal and external cocoa chain actors in Indonesia.

The main finding of the study is that participation of small-scale farmers in certified value chain is only possible and thus participating farmers benefit when the four inter-linked conditions are in place. Proliferation of certification among small-scale farmers unprecedentedly aims to transform farmers from being simply peasant into ‘farmer plus’. It thus requires organisational capacity, business skills and external support. The findings suggest that there should be a reappraisal of approach to the introduction of certification schemes involving small-scale farmers by applying this framework and prioritising efforts to improve small-scale farmers’ wellbeing rather than simply encouraging participation into networks as they are only a means to an end

Type of Work: Thesis (Masters by Research > M.Phil.)
Award Type: Masters by Research > M.Phil.
College/Faculty: Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Social Sciences
School or Department: Department of International Development
Funders: Other
Other Funders: Ford Foundation, World Agroforestry Centre
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor


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