Brominated micropollutants within the integrated steel-making process and their fate in the environment

Drage, Daniel (2013). Brominated micropollutants within the integrated steel-making process and their fate in the environment. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

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PBDEs were found in the raw sinter mix (RSM) used in iron ore sintering. Mass balance calculations after measurement of output samples (ESP dust, sinter product and stack emissions) revealed net reduction of PBDEs during sintering. After PBDD/Fs were detected in stack emissions, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs were investigated using a sinter pot (SP) - a laboratory scale version of the sintering process - under various conditions. Results suggested de novo synthesis of PBDD/Fs occurs within the process, but this was not caused by the PBDE content of RSM. The results from the SP ruled out PBDE formation within the sintering process.

Measurement of PBDEs in UK air and soil demonstrated that whilst PBDEs appeared to have decreased since legislative use restrictions, their persistence is highlighted by their continued detection. PBDEs decreased in air and soil with distance from Birmingham City Centre, highlighting the higher density of PBDE sources in urban areas.

Australian soils were less contaminated with PBDEs than the UK. Similar spatial patterns were found in both countries, with industry and urbanisation causing increased likelihood of elevated ∑PBDE concentrations primarily from Penta-BDE. Agricultural soil showed an influence of OctaBDE congeners.

Sediment cores from Port Jackson, Australia demonstrated that PBDEs were still rising at the end of the 20th Century. Industry was highlighted as a source as cores from the industrialised western side of the harbour were more contaminated than that from the urban north-east.

Type of Work: Thesis (Doctorates > Ph.D.)
Award Type: Doctorates > Ph.D.
College/Faculty: Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Life & Environmental Sciences
School or Department: School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
Funders: None/not applicable
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences


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