Improving food safety – opportunity and challenges on food hygiene of ready to eat street food vendors in Indonesia

Winiarti, Dea (2021). Improving food safety – opportunity and challenges on food hygiene of ready to eat street food vendors in Indonesia. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

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This research investigates the implementation of food hygiene in ready to eat street food vendors in Indonesia. It observed the knowledge, attitude, and practise (KAP) of food handlers, assessed environmental sampling in premises and confirmed KAP result after intervention. This study also examined government and stakeholders view on practices in food safety regulation in small food business, especially street food at the local level in Indonesia. In addition, this thesis also reviewed UK experiences in implementing food law enforcement from food inspectors’ perspective as potential lessons learned which could adopted by Indonesia.

The research used a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative analysis, with three phases. The first stage was a knowledge, attitude, and practise survey with food surface contact sampling as a baseline data. The construct questionnaire was designed to align with food safety and national regulation principals. The second stage was an intervention and evaluation of the impact of food hygiene training. The development of the training material was dictated by the first stage results. The last stage was an exploratory study by in depth interview of the government and stakeholder view on food hygiene control. An additional study of UK enforcement officers was carried out to determine their views on food law enforcement.

It was found that street food handlers in Bandung, Indonesia, had adequate knowledge and positive attitude but poor food hygiene practices. The microbial sampling showed high premises contamination with Enterobacteriaceae. The relationship (p<0.01) between knowledge-attitude (K-A), knowledge-practice (K-P) was evaluated by Spearman correlation. After a training intervention, a significant improvement was identified in knowledge and attitude (p<0.01). However, the practices in food hygiene and the microbial contamination were not observed to improve. The practice score relating to cross contamination had a significant (p<0.01) and strong correlation (1.000) with available hygiene and sanitation facility. Availability of sanitation facilities would also impact on the microbial contamination. The quantitative research concluded that food handler’s in ready to eat street food should be supported by hygiene and sanitation facilities as well as providing the food business easy access to knowledge and skills.

Results from the qualitative study confirmed that there were general issues in food governance process and its performance related to food safety control. The government system change from centralisation into decentralization has not been followed by strengthening of local governance between main actors and supporting offices to deliver or improve the public service in food safety control. The main goal of protecting public health has not been fully achieved. The food street vendors showed their desire for improving their position and needs support from government in hygiene and sanitation facility. The school showed had less capacity to protect the pupil since they have several barriers such as internal school resources, school infrastructure, parent support and inadequate regulation including its implementation.

The UK study has given insight into several factors that are important and have practical value in delivery of food control. Capacity and capability of organization including human resources, clear guidance and legislation, consistency of implementation are significant contributors.

A conclusion from this study is that bureaucratic and strategic reforms are needed to address the issues faced by food street vendors in Indonesia. This will include strengthening of local government capacity and reform of institutions, personal competence of government officer including their professional integration and infrastructure development. These can help achieve good governance and enhance public service.

The capacity and capability of schools should be supported by all stakeholders to provide a safe environment for pupils in term of food safety.

The existence of informal food sector needs to be addressed by several strategies that might benefit local income and help local government on food security issue. If the existence of street food vendors is recognized there can be mutually beneficial collaboration with local government for example positive impacts on tourism.

Type of Work: Thesis (Doctorates > Ph.D.)
Award Type: Doctorates > Ph.D.
Licence: All rights reserved All rights reserved
College/Faculty: Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
School or Department: School of Chemical Engineering
Funders: Other
Other Funders: Kemenristek DIkti RI
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics


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