Impact of low carbon fuel and catalyst on gasoline direct injection engine particulate matter

Chan, Jun Hoe (2020). Impact of low carbon fuel and catalyst on gasoline direct injection engine particulate matter. University of Birmingham. Ph.D.

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The increasingly concern of the impact of Particulate Matter (PM) emitted by Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines on human health and the environment have led to the research community to look into various approaches to abate and to reduce the PM emissions in accordance to the permitted limits. A comprehensive understanding of PM behaviour and characteristics is required in order determine the appropriate approach for reducing PM emissions. This research thesis begins the investigation on PM with different stoichiometry at maximum brake torque condition. Results suggest rich combustions PM has similar characteristics to stoichiometric. Contrarily, PM was formed differently with lean combustion by showing about 30^oC earlier for the start of oxidation temperature (SOT) and maximum mass loss rate temperature (MMLRT). Secondly, the introduction of 8 % (v/v) Di-Methyl Carbonate (DMC) addition. DMC was capable of reducing PM up to 60 % and altering PM characteristics with indication of 15^oC earlier of oxidation temperatures. Most importantly, without significant negative impact on engine performance. Following the evaluation of aftertreatment architectural configurations. A gasoline particulate filter positioned underfloor to TWC shows better compromise between PM filtration efficiency and pressure drop in comparison to close-couple architectural configuration. The pressure drop was lower with slightly lessened filtration performance. In overall, the pressure drop can be reduced up to 32 % and filtration performance has dropped up to 6 %. However, GPF filtration performance in underfloor architectural configuration can be improved up to 3 % with the use of GPF with advantageous properties, yet the pressure drop remained below close-couple architectural configuration. The research thesis finalised with a small case study on TEM grids preparation methodologies demonstrating comparable microscopic analysis of PM agglomerates with several advantages; similar average primary particle size and fractal dimension.

Type of Work: Thesis (Doctorates > Ph.D.)
Award Type: Doctorates > Ph.D.
Licence: All rights reserved
College/Faculty: Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
School or Department: School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Funders: None/not applicable
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery


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