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Characterisation of particulate matter emitted by gasoline direct injection engines and its impact on environment catalysts

Bogarra-Macias, Maria del Carmen (2017)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

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Abstract

The increasing concerns of greenhouse gases and deprived air quality have compelled researchers and vehicle manufacturers to investigate more efficient vehicle powertrains. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, as opposed to previous spark ignited technologies are capable of reducing fuel consumption, and therefore CO\(_2\) emissions. However, the main drawback is the increased level of particulate matter (PM) emissions due to the more heterogeneous mixture formation in GDI engines. Therefore, upcoming emission standards will include gasoline engines in PM legislation.

The aim of this investigation is to characterise PM (size, shape and composition), as the lung deposition rate, atmospheric residence time and soot oxidation patterns are highly dependent on PM characteristics. Understanding these properties will also aid in the design of more efficient aftertreatment devices targeting the specific features of PM present in GDI exhausts. In this work, on-board reforming has been used to generate a rich-in-hydrogen gas. Hydrogen combustion has been observed to reduce particle number concentration significantly without affecting the oxidation behaviour or the nanostructure properties of the soot whilst reducing CO\(_2\) emissions. In addition to this, the performance of gasoline particulate filters has been assessed as well as the role of the three way catalyst in PM reduction.

Type of Work:Ph.D. thesis.
Supervisor(s):Tsolakis, Athanasios and Dearn, Karl
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Department:School of Mechanical Engineering
Additional Information:

Thesis is under an option D embargo until 31/07/2021.

Publications arising from thesis:

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A., Millington, P. and Martos, F.J. Impact of exhaust gas fuel reforming and exhaust gas recirculation on particulate matter morphology in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine. Journal of Aerosol Science, Volume 103, January 2017, Pages 1–14
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.10.001

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J.M., Tsolakis, A., York, A., and Millington, P. Study of particulate matter and gaseous emissions in gasoline direct injection engine using on-board exhaust gas fuel reforming. Applied Energy, Volume 180, 15 October 2016, Pages 245-255
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.100

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A. and Millington, P. Reformate Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) Effect on Particulate Matter (PM), Soot Oxidation and Three Way Catalyst (TWC) Performance in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines. SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2019

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A., Millington, P. and Martos, F.J. “Influence of on-board produced hydrogen and three way catalyst on soot nanostructure in Gasoline Direct Injection engines”. Carbon, CarbonVolume 120, August 2017, Pages 326-336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.05.049

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A., Millington, P. and Martos, F.J. “Impact of exhaust gas fuel reforming and exhaust gas recirculation on particulate matter morphology in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine”. Journal of Aerosol Science,Volume 103, January 2017, Pages 1–14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.10.001

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A., and Millington, P. ”Study of particulate matter and gaseous emissions in gasoline direct injection engine using on-board exhaust gas fuel reforming”. Applied Energy, Volume 180, 15 October 2016, Pages 245-255
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.100

Bogarra, M., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A. and Millington, P. “Reformate Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) Effect on Particulate Matter (PM), Soot Oxidation and Three Way Catalyst (TWC) Performance in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines". SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2019

Subjects:QD Chemistry
TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Institution:University of Birmingham
ID Code:7643
This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.
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