Williams, Christopher (1990)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.
“Street children” appear, within current forms of state provision, an irreversible aspect of the world's 'out of school youth 1. NGOs demonstrate appropriate strategies, but do not have the resources for widespread action. State Educational Systems are inert, but have the possibility of a more general response. The inclusion of these children within state education is therefore investigated in the light of NGO experience. European history depicts a situation equatable with that of the present-day. This provides a basis to compare the relevance of Europe's arrival at a minimised incidence of street existence, with the present third world situation. Current ethnography provides an understanding of the circumstances of street-life, and children's drawings are used as a research/educative technique. Definition is usually a prerequisite of discussions of disadvantaged groups, but it is argued that 'street children' are more usefully considered within a hierarchy of street use which includes all children. Urban entropy is utilised as a conceptual framework applicable to past and present contexts, which proposes social coherence as an educational objective. A non-excluding school is propounded, which has the possibility of accommodating children irrespective of their degree of street use. Field-work was carried out in South Africa, Turkey, and India.
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