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Large deformation and crystallisation properties of process optimised cocoa butter emulsions

di Bari, Vincenzo (2015)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

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Abstract

The objectives of the research presented in this thesis were: (1) optimise the processing conditions for the production of water-in-cocoa butter emulsions; (2) understand the role of water droplets on the large deformation behaviour and crystallisation properties of emulsified systems. Results showed that a scraped surface heat exchanger could be used to produce tempered emulsions with a small average droplet size (~3 µm). In all systems stability was provided by the emulsifier and fat crystals forming a network both in the bulk and at the interface of the water droplets.

Characterisation of the large deformation properties of emulsions showed that the elastic behaviour remained constant at low aqueous phase percentages while the strength at fracture decreased. This result suggests that water droplets act as stress-concentrator elements, which is probably due to their partial sintering with the bulk network.

Results of crystallisation experiments have shown that the effect of droplets on kinetics of crystallisation depends on the degree of supercooling: only at relatively high temperatures (15, 20 °C) the dispersed droplets increased the kinetics of crystallisation compared to bulk cocoa butter (CB). With respect to polymorphic evolution, emulsified systems evolved faster toward more stable forms than bulk CB at all temperatures.

Type of Work:Ph.D. thesis.
Supervisor(s):Norton, Ian
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Department:School of Chemical Engineering
Subjects:TP Chemical technology
Institution:University of Birmingham
ID Code:6305
This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.
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