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Vibrational energy harvesting using piezoelectric ceramics and free-standing thick-film structures

Bai, Yang (2015)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

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This thesis presents a series of broad but systematic and consecutive investigations on the topic of piezoelectric energy harvesting. These include material fabrication and characterisation, harvester fabrication and material parameter selection, electric output and dynamic behaviour tests of energy harvesters, and the feasibility of utilising lead-free piezoelectric materials for energy harvesting. Three lead-based and one lead-free perovskite solid-solutions compositions have been researched individually and compared to each other. In the form of bulk ceramics the lead-free composition is considered capable of replacing the lead-based compositions for vibrational energy harvesting at room temperature. Typical properties of ε\(_r\)≈4700, \(P\)\(_r\)≈9 μC/cm\(^2\), \(d\)\(_3\)\(_3\)≈500 pC/N, \(k\)\(_p\)≈0.51 have been achieved for the lead-free and lead-based compositions respectively. Vibrational energy harvesting based on a novel structure of piezoelectric/silver multi-layer free-standing thick-film unimorph and bimorph cantilevers have been investigated using two of the lead-based compositions. A planar shrinkage difference of 3-6% between the silver and piezoelectric layers is suggested in order to ensure successful fabrication. When tested under harmonic vibration conditions, a comparison of unimorph individual harvesters suggests that higher piezoelectric voltage and electromechanical coupling coefficients may be preferred when selecting materials. Further optimisations involving bimorph devices with tip proof mass have demonstrated maximum harvester outputs (root mean square) of about 9 μW and 2.8 V with approximately 14% bandwidth under resonant vibrations (I 00-150 Hz, 0.5 - I.Og). In addition, the cantilevers have utilised to harvest wind energy with a modified spinning configuration, exhibiting 3.4 V average open-circuit output voltage in optimum wind conditions.

Type of Work:Ph.D. thesis.
Supervisor(s):Button, Tim W
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Department:School of Metallurgy and Materials
Additional Information:

Publications arising from research:-
Journal Articles:
Bai, Yang, Carl Meggs, and Tim W. Button. "Investigation of Using Free-Standing Thick-Film Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters to Develop Wideband Devices." International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics 14.08 (2014). DOI: 10.1142/S0219455414400161.

Zeb, A., Bai, Y., Button, T., Milne, S. J. (2014), Temperature-Stable Relative Permittivity from −70°C to 500°C in (Ba0.8Ca0.2)TiO3–Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3–NaNbO3 Ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97: 2479–2483. DOI: 10.1111/jace.12949

Conference Proceedings:
Bai, Y., Meggs, C., Button, T. W., 'Fabrication and Investigation of Free-standing Piezoelectric Thick-film Cantilevers for Energy Harvesting Applications', 10th International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications and 8th Energy Harvesting Workshop 2013. Proceedings : Hannover, July 14th - July 17th, 2013.

Jiang, Y., et al. "Lead-free piezoelectric materials and composites for high frequency medical ultrasound transducer applications." Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2014 IEEE International. IEEE, 2014. DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2014.0221

Subjects:TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy
Institution:University of Birmingham
ID Code:5826
This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.
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