Song, Mi Yeon (2009)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.
This thesis investigates the microfabrication of silicon tips for Scanning Probe Microscopy. First, a microfabrication process was developed to produce silicon tips over 100 um height with a sharp apex of ~10–20 nm. To prevent inadvertent contact between the substrate bearing the tip and the sample being probed, the tip is elevated on a mesa structure. Atomic resolution STM images of graphite are successfully obtained using silicon tips. Subsequently, a co-axial tip was developed for SPELS. SPELS uses an STM tip in field emission mode and then analyses the energy of electrons backscattered. However, the electric field distorts the trajectories of the backscattered electrons. A screened co-axial tip was thus designed; the tip consists of a multilayer Si/Au/HfO\(-2\)/Au structure. The outermost Au layer is grounded. SPELS spectra of graphite were successfully obtained for the first time. Third, a multilayered tip was fabricated for the Scanning Probe Electron AnalyseR.. This approach is a combination of STM with an ultraviolet light source. The designed structure is a multilayered silicon tip consisting of Si/SiO\(_2\)/Au/SiO\(_2\)/Au; the three conducting layers act as an electron collector, retarding field analyser, and grounded shield layer, respectively.
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