Rodríguez Sanmartín, Daniel (2011)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.
The development of active/adaptive X-ray optics, utilising piezoelectric actuation for the focussing of X-rays in large and small scale applications, has been studied as part of the UK Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) consortium.
For laboratory based X-ray sources utilising micro structured optical arrays (MOAs), a novel spider actuator structure, compatible with silicon wet etching of MOAs, has been developed. Test spider samples (20x20x0.100mm) have been bent to a 6.5cm radius using unimorph actuators, and to a 3cm radius without failure. FEA models predicted that a 4.5cm radius and +/-3mrad tip/tilt control of the MOAs could be obtained using unimorph actuators with segmented electrodes and optimized thickness, which would enable a tandem pair MOA configuration of suitable focal length.
A first generation prototype Wolter I optic for future high resolution X-ray telescopes exhibited kinks in the reflecting surface corresponding to the gaps between piezoelectric devices. FEA models have been used to develop second generation prototypes in which the gaps have been minimised or filled. These incorporate a brick wall arrangement of curved unimorph piezoelectric actuators (32x75x0.190mm) with radii from 160-200mm +/-6mm, manufactured using a VPP technique and laser machining for precise dimensional control.
Keywords: Smart X-ray optics (SXO), micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs), Wolter I X-ray optics, piezoelectric actuators, finite element analysis (FEA), viscous plastic processing (VPP).
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