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The synthesis, characterisation and properties of self- assembled hollow and low density microspheres.

Mee, Stephen J. (2011)
Eng.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

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Abstract

Hollow low density microspheres were prepared by adsorbing kaolin nanoparticles onto a polystyrene (PS) template. A cationic polyelectrolyte, poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride), was initially adsorbed on the PS to render the surface cationic enabling the kaolin nanoparticles to form a shell structure due to electrostatic attraction forces. An increase in ionic strength by the addition of 0.1 M NaCl increased the amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed at the PS surface. Solvent relaxation NMR experiments indicated that solvent molecules were bound at the PS surface suggesting attached polymer chains. Zeta potential experiments indicated a change in the surface potential at the PS interface due to the addition of a polyelectrolyte, as little as 0.1 g m-2 of polyelectrolyte was required to change the PS surface potential. Surface saturation of the PS resulted in a zeta potential of 63.5 \(\pm\)2.6 mV, at pH 6.6 \(\pm\)0.2. Kaolin adsorption was determined by reduced sediment volume experiments and observed by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of an increase in the kaolin ratio and the calcination process on the microsphere structure was investigated. When calcined at 1000 ºC for 60 min the microsphere properties exhibited a particle size (d50) of 11.2 \(\pm\)0.4 \(\mu\)m and a bulk density of 0.13 \(\pm\)0.01 g/cm3. The internal structure of the calcined microspheres were characterised by the use of SEM and focused ion beam (FIB) instruments. The characteristic properties of the calcined kaolin microspheres were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Type of Work:Eng.D. thesis.
Supervisor(s):Greenwood, Richard and Rowson, Neil
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Department:School of Chemical Engineering
Subjects:T Technology (General)
TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
TP Chemical technology
Institution:University of Birmingham
ID Code:3116
This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.
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