eTheses Repository

Youth, citizenship and the production of 'dangerous communities': representations of young Muslims in Britain and Germany

Hilbert, Maria (2011)
M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.

PDF (1129Kb)


This dissertation explores representations of young Muslims in Britain and Germany. The relatively recent focus on Islam in Western politics is contextualised within wider discursive shifts that frame ethnic minorities increasingly in terms of culture and faith, rather than race and ethnicity. Two case studies are explored – the Rushdie Affair and the Rütli Affair – to demonstrate the ways in which Muslims are ‘othered’ and constructed as ‘dangerous’ by non-Muslims. Media and political debates around these affairs are explored through the use of selected documents and discourse analysis. This highlights similarities in the ways Muslims are conceptualised in both countries as well as historic continuities. Representations of Muslims carry connotations of a Clash of Civilizations; an idea that has gained particular momentum following the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States. Portrayals of Islam as archaic and anti-Western position it as a possible threat to nation, state and society. Gendered accounts render young males deviant and aggressive, while women are conceived as passive or oppressed. The discourses examined reveal concerns about Muslims as segregated and not ‘integrated’. Underlying notions of assimilation place particular demands on them to demonstrate compliance with apparent national cultures and values.

Type of Work:M.Res. thesis.
Supervisor(s):Warmington, Paul and Myers, Kevin
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Social Sciences
Department:School of Education

Ahmedi, A. (1997) Rushdie: Haunted by his unholy ghosts, London: Avon Books.

Ahsan, M.M. and Kidwai, A.R. (eds.) (1993) Sacrilege versus Civility: Muslim Perspectives on The Satanic Verses Affair. 2nd ed. Leicester: The Islamic Foundation.

Akhtar, S. (1989b) Be careful with Muhammad! The Salman Rushdie Affair, London: Bellew Publishing.

Allen, C. (2005) “From Race to Religion: The New Face of Discrimination.” In Abbas, T. (ed.) Muslim Britain: Communities under Pressure, London: Zed Books, pp.49-65.

Allen, C. (2010) Islamophobia, Farnham: Ashgate.

Appignanesi, L. and Maitland, S. (eds.) (1990) The Rushdie File, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Avis, J. (2006) Improvement through research: policy science or policy scholarship. Research in Post-Compulsory Education [online], 11(1): 107-14.

Back, L. and Solomos, J. (eds.) (2009) Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader. 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bade, K.J. (ed.) (1993) Deutsche im Ausland – Fremde in Deutschland: Migration in Geschichte und Gegenwart [Germans abroad – foreigners in Germany: Migration in history and present]. Special ed. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck.

Bade, K.J. (ed.) (1995) Menschen über Grenzen, Grenzen über Menschen: Die multikulturelle Herausforderung [People above boarders, boarders above people: The multicultural challenge]. Herne: Heitkamp.

Bade, K.J. (2003) Migration, Migrationsforschung, Migrationspolitik: Bericht für das Goethe-Institut [Migration, migration research, migration politics: Report for the Goethe-Institut] [online]. Munich: Goethe-Institut. Available from:

Brown, G. (2006a) The Future of Britishness, Speech to the Fabian Society New Year Conference, London, 14th January.

Bukow, W.-D., Nikodem, C., Schulze, E. and Yildiz, E. (eds.) (2007) Was heiβt hier Parallelgesellschaft? Zum Umgang mit Differenzen [What do you mean, parallel society? Dealing with Differences], Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Bulmer, M. and Solomos, J. (eds.) (2004) Researching Race and Racism, Abingdon: Routledge.

Bundesregierung (2007) Der Nationale Integrationsplan: Neue Wege – Neue Chancen [The National Integration Plan: New Paths – New Opportunities], Berlin: Presse- und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung with Die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration.

Burnett, J. (2004) Community, Cohesion and the State, Race and Class, 45(1): 1-18.

Cameron, D. (2011) Speech at Munich Security Conference, Munich, 5th February.

Cantle, T. (2001) Community Cohesion: A Report of the Independent Review Team [Cantle Report], London: Home Office.

Castles, S. and Miller, M.J. (1993) The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp.98-123

CCCS (Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies) (1982) The Empire Strikes Back: Race and racism in 70s Britain, London: Hutchinson.

Coard, B. (2007) “How the West Indian child is made educationally subnormal in the British school system: the scandal of the Black child in schools in Britain.” In Richardson, B. (ed.) Tell it like it is: How our schools fail Black children. 2nd ed. London: Bookmarks Publications. pp.29-61

CRE (1990a) Law, Blasphemy and the Multi-Faith Society: Report of a seminar organised by the Commission for Racial Equality and the Inter Faith Network of the United Kingdom, September 1989, London: Commission for Racial Equality (CRE).

CRE (1990b) Free Speech: Report of a seminar organised by the Commission for Racial Equality and the Policy Studies Institute, September 1989, London: Commission for Racial Equality (CRE).

Fairclough, N. (1995) Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language, Harlow: Pearson Education.

Flam, H. (ed.) (2007) Migranten in Deutschland: Statistiken, Fakten, Diskurse [Migrants in Germany: Statistics, facts, discourses], Konstanz: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.

Geisen, T. and Riegel, C. (eds.) (2009) Jugend, Partizipation und Migration: Orientierungen im Kontext von Integration und Ausgrenzung [Youth, Participation and Migration: Orientation in the context of integration and exclusion]. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Gerlach, J. (2006) Zwischen Pop und Dschihad: Muslimische Jugendliche in Deutschland [Between pop and jihad: Muslim youth in Germany], Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag.

Gillborn, D. (1997) Racism and Reform: new ethnicities / old inequalities?, British Educational Research Journal, 23(3): 345-360

Gillborn, D. (2005) Education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform, Journal of Educational Policy, 20(4): 485-505

Gillborn, D. (2008) Racism and Education: Coincidence or Conspiracy?, London: Routledge.

Gilroy, P. (1993) Small Acts: Thoughts on the Politics of Black Cultures, London: Serpent’s Tail.

Gilroy, P. (2002). There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack: The cultural politics of race and nation, Abingdon: Routledge.

Gilroy, P. (2004) After Empire: Melancholia or convivial culture?, Abingdon: Routledge.

Grosvenor, I. (1997) Assimilating Identities: Racism and Educational Policy in Post 1945 Britain. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Gunaratnam, Y. (2003) Researching ‘Race’ and Ethnicity: Methods, knowledge and power, London: Sage Publications.

Hall, S. (1990) Cultural Identity and Diaspora, reprinted in Woodward, K. (ed.) (1997) Identity and Difference, London: SAGE Publications. pp.51-9

Hall, S. (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, Sage Publications Ltd.

Hamburger, F., Badawia, T. and Hummrich, M. (eds.) (2005) Migration und Bildung: Über das Verhältnis von Anerkennung und Zumutung in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft [Migration and education: About the relationship of recognition and demand in the immigration society], Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Home Office (2004) Strength in Diversity: Towards a Community Cohesion and Race Equality Strategy, London: Home Office.

Huntington, S.P. (2002) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, London: The Free Press.

Joppke, C. (1999a) Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany, and Great Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Joppke, C. (2009) Limits of Integration Policy: Britain and Her Muslims, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(3): 453-72.

Klee, E. (ed.) (1972) Gastarbeiter: Analysen und Berichte [Gastarbeiter: Analyses and reports]. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.

Köster, W. (ed.) (2009) Parallelgesellschaften: Diskursanalysen zur Dramatisierung von Migration. Beiträge studentischen Forschens [Parallel societies: Discourse analyses on the dramatisation of migration. Contributions of student researchers], Essen: Klartext Verlag.

Kundnani, A. (2007) The End of Tolerance: Racism in 21st Century Britain, Pluto Press.

Ladson-Billings, G. and Gillborn, D. (eds.) (2004) The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Multicultural Education, Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer.

Luft, S. (2007) Abschied von Multikulti: Wege aus der Integrationskrise [Farewell from Multikulti: Ways out of the integration crisis]. 2nd ed. Gräfelfing: Resch-Verlag.

Malik, K. (2009a) From fatwa to jihad: The Rushdie affair and its legacy, London: Atlantic Books.

Malik, K. (2009b) Strange fruit: Why both sides are wrong in the race debate, Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

Meer, N. and Modood, T. (2008) The Multicultural State We’re In: Muslims, ‘Multiculture’ and ‘Civic Re—balancing’ of British Multiculturalism. Political Studies, 56(3): 1-25

Meier-Braun, K.-H. (2002) Deutschland, Einwanderungsland [Germany, country of immigration], Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.

Miller-Idriss, C. (2009) Blood and Culture: Youth, right-wing extremism, and national belonging in contemporary Germany, Durham: Duke University Press.

Motte, J. and Ohliger, R. (eds.) (2004) Geschichte und Gedächtnis in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft: Migration zwischen historischer Rekonstruktion und Erinnerungspolitik [History and memory in society marked by immigration: Migration between historical reconstruction and policies of rememberance], Essen: Klartext Verlag.

Neal, S. (2003) The Scarman Report, the Macpherson Report and the Media: How Newspapers Respond to Race-Centred Social Policy Interventions. Journal of Social Policy, 32(1): 55-74.

Nielson, J.S. (ed.) (1989) The “Rushdie Affair”: A Documentation. Research Papers: Muslims in Europe, 42. Birmingham: Centre for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations.

Nowak, J. (2006) Leitkultur und Parallelgesellschaft: Argumente wider einen deutschen Mythos [Leitkultur and parallel society: Arguments against a German myth]. Frankfurt am Main: Brandes & Apsel Verlag.

Osler, A. (2000) The Crick Report: difference, equality and racial justice. The Curriculum Journal, 11(1): 25-37.

Öztürk, H. (2007) Wege zur Integration: Lebenswelten muslimischer Jugendlicher in Deutschland [Paths to integration: Lifeworlds of Muslim youth in Germany], Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Parekh, B. (2000) The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: The Parekh Report, London: Profile Books.

Pautz, H. (2005) Die deutsche Leitkultur: Eine Identitätsdebatte. Neue Rechte, Neorassismus und Normalisierungsbemühungen [The German Leitkultur: An identity debate. New Right, New Racism and attempts at normalisation]. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag.

Pilkington, A. (2003) Racial Disadvantage and Ethnic Diversity in Britain, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Race, R. (2011) Multiculturalism and Education. London: Continuum.

Richardson, B. (ed.) (2007) Tell it like it is: How our schools fail Black children. 2nd ed. London: Bookmarks Publications.

Riegel, C. and Geisen, T. (eds.) (2010) Jugend, Zugehörigkeit und Migration: Subjektpositionierung im Kontext von Jugendkultur, Ethnizitäts- und Geschlechterkonstruktionen [Youth, Belonging and Migration: Subject positioning in the context of youth culture, ethnicity and gender constructions]. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Ruthven, M. (1991) A Satanic Affair: Salman Rushdie and the Wrath of Islam. 2nd ed. London: The Hogarth Press.

Sardar, Z. and Davies, M.W. (1990) Distorted Imagination: Lessons from the Rushdie Affair, London: Grey Seal Books.

Schiffauer, W. (2008) Parallelgesellschaften: Wie viel Wertekonsens braucht unsere Gesellschaft? Für eine kluge Politik der Differenz [Parallel societies: How many shared values does our society need? For a wise politics of difference], Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Sivanandan, A. (1982) A Different Hunger: Writings on Black Resistance, London: Pluto Press.

Sivanandan, A. (2008) Catching History on the Wing: Race, Culture and Globalisation, London: Pluto Press.

Solomos, J. (2003) Race and Racism in Britain. 3rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Solomos, J. and Back, L. (1995) Race, Politics and Social Change, London: Routlegde.

Song, M. (2003) Choosing Ethnic Identity, Cambridge: Polity Press in association with Blackwell Publishing.

Tomlinson, S. (2008) Race and Education: Policy and Politics in Britain, Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Van Dijk, T.A. (1991) Racism and the Press, London: Routledge.

Von Wensierski, H.J. and Lübcke, C. (2007) Junge Muslime in Deutschland: Lebenslagen, Aufwachsprozesse und Jugendkulturen [Young Muslims in Germany: Life situations, processes of growing up and youth cultures], Opladen: Verlag Barbara Budrich.

Weiss, H. (ed.) (2007) Leben in zwei Welten: Zur sozialen Integration ausländischer Jugendlicher der zweiten Generation [Living in two Worlds: About the social integration of second generation immigrant youth], Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Weller, P. (2009) A Mirror for our Times: ‘The Rushdie Affair’ and the Future of Multiculturalism, London: Continuum.

Keywords:Race, Ethnicity, Culture, Faith, Islam, Muslim, Citizenship, Rushdie, Rütli, Youth, Representation, Britain, Germany
Subjects:H Social Sciences (General)
HM Sociology
HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
HT Communities. Classes. Races
JA Political science (General)
L Education (General)
LA History of education
Institution:University of Birmingham
ID Code:3010
This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.
Export Reference As : ASCII + BibTeX + Dublin Core + EndNote + HTML + METS + MODS + OpenURL Object + Reference Manager + Refer + RefWorks
Share this item :
QR Code for this page

Repository Staff Only: item control page