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Histone modification and the epigenetics of X chromosome inactivation

Spotswood, Hugh Timothy (2003)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

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Abstract

Dosage compensation serves to equalise the levels of X-linked gene products between males and females. In mammals this occurs through the transcriptional silencing of the majority of the genes on one of the two female X chromosomes. The inactive X chromosome (Xi) differs from its active homologue in a number of ways, including the hypoacetylation of core histones, a common property of genetically inactive chromatin. This study has used Xi to explore the functional significance of hypoacetylation and patterns of histone methylation in silent chromatin. Xi was shown to be depleted for di- and tri-methylated lysine 4 of H3, but retained di-methylated lysine 9 of H3. I have examined the temporal order of these modifications as they become established using an in vitro model system for X inactivation; differentiating female embryonic stem cells. The results showed that the loss of tri-methylated lysine 4 of H3 preceded the loss of its di-methylated equivalent, which occurs during a time period of concurrent core histone deacetylation supporting a functional role to the level of lysine methylation. I have used cases of X;autosome translocation to examine how these modifications relate to late replication and transcriptional silencing. Results show that whilst the spread of X inactivation can occur in the absence of both of these properties, histone modifications are a more reliable indicator of the extent of spread of X inactivation than late replication. To explore mechanisms that drive changes in histone modification I have analysed the distribution of histone deacetylases across a region of defined histone deacetylation. The results showed a ubiquitous distribution that did not correlate with acetylated H3 or H4 suggesting that the global association of the Hdacs might serve to provide a rapid return the basal level of histone acetylation following specific targeting events.

Type of Work:Ph.D. thesis.
Supervisor(s):Turner, Bryan M.
School/Faculty:Schools (1998 to 2008) > School of Medicine
Department:Department of Anatomy
Subjects:QH426 Genetics
QM Human anatomy
Institution:University of Birmingham
Library Catalogue:Check for printed version of this thesis
ID Code:230
This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties. The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation. Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.
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