Graves, Carl (2011)
M.Phil. thesis, University of Birmingham.
This dissertation focuses on the changing nature of Ancient Egyptian involvement in Nubia from the Middle Kingdom to the 20th Dynasty (2009 – 1191 BC). Recent advances in our knowledge of both Egyptian and Nubian urbanism have contributed to the overall conclusion regarding the purpose of Egyptian imperialism in Nubia. Excavation reports from the 1960‟s salvage campaigns at the Middle Kingdom fortresses, together with data from new excavations in Nubia at Kerma and the New Kingdom „temple towns‟ have all contributed to this research. From this study it can be seen that Egyptian presence in Nubia continued, without break, from the Middle Kingdom conquest through to the end of the New Kingdom. The Egyptian settlers in Nubia maintained contact with local Nubian populations without the intervention of the state and became independent communities during the Second Intermediate Period – albeit under the jurisdiction of the Ruler of Kush. Ongoing research and excavations in Nubia will continue to change our perception of Egyptian occupation in this area and this brief study aims to be the first of, no doubt, many re-evaluations of this topic.
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