Heuer, Ernest Alexander Kristian (2009)
Eng.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.
Many foods contain large amounts of saturated fatty acids (SaFa), which are considered unhealthy, and their presence in the diet is one of the contributing factors of cardio-vascular disease, obesity and the inherent risk of diabetes. It has become the driver of food producers to manufacture products with as little of these oils as they can. Reformulation work based on Elmlea whipping creams sought to address this issue, by which the ingredients of the principal formulation were taken and ever increasing levels of liquid oil were added, but keeping the total oil concentration at 34%. Many of its’ properties were tested and the optimum formulation was found to be that containing 20% hydrogenated and 14% liquid oil. Further formulation work was associated with another product: ice-cream. Ice-cream distribution, particularly with its transport over the Rocky Mountains in the US, poses a large problem. Taking ice cream across the Mountains involves travelling at altitudes in excess of 2000 metres and this leads to its expansion due to the reduced air pressures. The product can spoil in transit. Further instabilities arise when extruded from a freezer. This instability was studied extensively in this work. It was seen that larger drops in pressure and at a slower rate were more detrimental to the model foam structure than small pressure differences and a fast rate. The fast pressure release seemed to have less of a detrimental effect on the resultant bubble foam microstructure.
|Type of Work:||Eng.D. thesis.|
|Supervisor(s):||Barigou, Mostafa and Norton, Ian|
|School/Faculty:||Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Engineering & Physical Sciences|
|Department:||School of Chemical Engineering|
Includes supplementary video to section 4.2.1 (90 s)
|Keywords:||Cream, whipping, bubbles, protein, emulsion|
|Subjects:||TP Chemical technology|
|Institution:||University of Birmingham|
|Library Catalogue:||Check for printed version of this thesis|
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