Cogswell, Daniel J. (2010)
Eng.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.
The transition toughness of low alloy steels used in pressure vessels is of key importance to establishing the safe operation of a number of structures; of these, the integrity of a nuclear reactor vessel is of greatest concern. The through life toughness of such vessels is a combination of the start of life properties and irradiation damage response of the material. Modelling of the inherent scatter of toughness measurements has received much academic interest since the mid-twentieth century and is found to be dependent on a number of metallurgical factors and failure modes; therefore, the micro-mechanisms of the ductile and brittle failure are explored and an assessment of the current best thinking on the modelling of crack arrest toughness is also considered. It has been established in this work that a highly accurate representation of a large toughness database can be achieved by the inclusion of constraint loss effects and the interaction between initiation and arrest toughness distributions.
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